Validation of Patented Wet Compression Technology

 

Wet compression is much more than spraying water into the turbine. Wet compression on a combustion turbine must be applied systematically and only after a thorough evaluation of the effects on the combustion turbine and all the auxiliaries. The improper design and application of wet compression can cause significant damage to the combustion turbine. The licensees of this technology share in a broad base of know-how and proof testing acquired over the past 10 years relative to the application.

Siemens Westinghouse has applied this power augmentation technology to almost 30 combustion turbines, including the W501 A, W501 D5, 501 D5A, V84.2 and the V84.3A2. They have recently released this for some F-Class combustion turbines. Caldwell Energy has recently developed and supplied wet compression systems and completed one-year commercial operation testing for Alstom and General Electric combustion turbines.

 

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    Performance Enhancement Of GT 24 With Wet Compression Technology

    by

    Sanjeev Jolly, P.E.
    Scott Cloyd
    Caldwell Energy Company
    Louisville, Kentucky, USA

    ABSTRACT

    The performance effects of applying wet compression to an advanced frame combustion turbine, the Alstorm GT-24, are presented and contrasted to the performance of mature Frame combustion turbines that have been operated with wet compression systems for many years. The performance comparisons are based on combustion turbines that are equipped with evaporative cooling systems and dry low NOx combustion systems. The paper addresses the relative changes in compressor and turbine operating conditions and how these affect component life. Wet compression is not just haphazardly spraying water into the compressor inlet; care must be taken as there is an expensive and high precision turbine downstream. The system must be properly integrated with the turbine and turbine controls and any issues or concerns with wet compression must be thoroughly evaluated and addressed. The paper also reviews current assessment of applying wet compression systems to combustion turbines and provide performance and economic comparisons to alternative power augmentation technologies for these products.

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      Direct Spray System For Inlet Air Cooling W 501 B5

      by

      Sanjeev Jolly, P.E.
      Joseph Nitzken, P.E.
      Donald Shepherd
      Caldwell Energy & Environmental, Inc.
      Louisville, Kentucky, USA

      ABSTRACT

      Cooling the inlet air utilizing water spray system can increase the performance of a combustion turbine during hot weather. In a direct spray system, water is added to the sir stream in the form of fine droplets. As the droplets absorb the latent heat of vaporization, heat is removed from the air stream thereby reducing it’s temperature. the objective of this paper is to discuss a direct spray system for cooling inlet air for Florida Power & Light’s Westinghouse 501 B5 combustion turbine at the Putnam plant. The fogging is done in multiple stages – an external zone and an internal zone to control the humidity to a precise level. An overspray zone has been added for additional power augmentation. The water is sprayed into the incoming air stream through impingement nozzles placed at the cross-section of the incoming air. The size of the water droplets varies with the nozzle dimensions and water pressure. It is important to limit the size of the water droplets in order to allow for vaporization of water in a relatively short distance, thus minimizing water carryover and droplet agglomeration. Therefore selection of the nozzle type, their arrangement and placement, and the water discharge pressure is very important to control the stringent compressor inlet air requirements. These design requirements and actual cooling system performance are discussed in detail in this paper.

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        Peaking Capacity Enhancement Of ABB 11N1 With Thermal Energy Storage

        by

        Sanjeev Jolly, P.E.
        Joseph Nitzkin, P.E.
        Donald Shepherd,
        Cladwell Energy & Environmental, Inc.
        Louisville, Kentucky, USA

        Douglas T. Eberlin, P.E.
        Wisconsin Electric
        Milwaukee, Wisconsin

        ABSTRACT

        Many electrical utilities are experiencing increased seasonal demand due to air conditioning use. Current air quality rules and regulatory changes in the industry favor the installation of combustion turbines (CT) for new generation capacity. Ironically, CT output declines as ambient temperature increases. As the output of a combustion turbine degrades during hot weather conditions, warm ambient air to the compressor inlet can be chilled to restore lost capacity. For a thermal energy storage (TES) system, a refrigeration system is utilized to build a cold energy reserve and this reserve is used to cool inlet air during peak hours to enhance turbine capacity. Typically, a TES system can be installed at half the cost of installing a new turbine. Two such systems were installed at Wisconsin Electric’s (WE) Concord and Paris Generating Stations, each having four ABB 11N1 combustion turbines running in simple cycle mode, This paper discusses the feasibility study and design for a TES based inlet chilling system to provide peaking capacity enhancement for these ABB 11n1 machines. The system design is based on cooling the inlet air for 4 hours a day, 5 days a week. Each of these systems includes a 3,200 ton refrigerant plant, two 2 1/4 million gallon tanks, and 2,500 tons of ice-making capacity. The instantaneous cooling load for each set of 4 turbines is 16,700 tons. With this Combustion Turbine Inlet Air Cooling System (CTIAC), a total gain of more than 112 MW (approximately 17%) was expected for the two plants, making it the world’s largest inlet air cooling system. Finally, the system performance is discussed during summer operation.

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          Application Of Wet Compression For Aeroderivitive Combustion Turbines

          by

          Sanjeev Jolly, P.E.
          Scott Cloyd
          Caldwell Energy Company
          Louisville, KY

          James Hinrichs
          PURENERGY LLC
          San Diego, CA

          ABSTRACT

          While the application of wet compression to boost turbine capacity has been successfully applied to industrial frame machine, only recently has this technology been applied to aeroderivatives like the LM-2500. The principles of applying wet compression are similar to the industrial frame machines, but there are subtle differences that affect the design of the spray system, inlet duct modification, control system integration, and turbine protective devices. This paper discusses design differences and the performance enhancement of an LM-2500PE that was retrofit with wet compression at PurEnergy’s Kingsburg Congeneration Facility in Kingsburg, California. The LM-2500 is an interesting application because the compressor and power turbine are on different shafts which introduce speed and pressure variations between the gas generator and power turbine that affect the performance augmentation resulting from wet compression. Operating limits for surge and speed were also encountered which were not previously encountered on the single shaft industrial frames. The incremental performance per gallon of water is notably different from the industrial turbines which will be shown for comparison of the augmentation results along with a comparison of wet compression to other power augmentation technologies.

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            Impact Of Heat Rate, Emissions, And Reliability From The Application Of Wet Compression On Combustion Turbines

            by

            Donald W. Shepherd
            Caldwell Energy Company
            Louisville, KY

            Donald Fraser
            Siemens Westinghouse
            Orlando, Florida

            ABSTRACT:

            Wet compression technology has been successfully installed on over 40 combustion turbines around the world. Wet compression systems have been justified due to the significant power gains achieved. What has not been discussed is the impact this technology has on the efficiency (heat rate), emissions and reliability of the combustion turbine.

            One significant advantage of wet compression systems over other turbine inlet cooling power augmentation technologies is that gains are not restricted by ambient conditions. As a result, the megawatt-hours during the year are much higher than with any other technology, resulting in quicker payback and maximum net present value. Another benefit is that the application of wet compression is complementary to other turbine inlet cooling technologies like evaporative cooling, fogging or chilling. There are also benefits relating to heat rate, emissions and reliability for a properly designed and installed system.

            This paper presents computational and field data that illustrates that there is more to gain than merely addition power output. Experience will be drawn from all types of combustion turbines: aeroderivitive, mature and advanced. The information will be presented in a format that will accurately depict all the benefits of wet compression technology allowing users to fully understand these benefits.

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              Wet Compression – A Powerful Means Of Enhancing Combustion Turbine Capacity

              by

              Sanjeev Jolly, P.E.
              Caldwell Energy & Environmental, Inc.
              Louisville, Kentucky, USA

              ABSTRACT

              Wet compression is a patented process that increases the capacity of a combustion turbine (CT) by as much as 15 to 25% by purposely injecting water droplets into a compressor inlet (AKA – overspray, high fogging or supersaturation). The increase in capacity is primarily due to reduction in compressor work and ability for additional firing in the combustor, and secondarily due to increase in mass flowrate. This paper presents thermodynamic benefits of wet compression, the risks associated with applying wer compression systems to a CT, the steps that were taken to integrate and validate the system at a recent installation, and performance results of the system application on a GE Frame 6B combustion turbine, in which power output was augmented by 9%.

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                Inlet Air Cooling For A Frame 7EA Based Combined Cycle Power Plant

                Presented at Power-Gen International
                Las Vegas, Nevada
                1997

                by

                Sanjeev Jolly, P. E.
                Donald W. Shepherd
                Joseph A. Nitzken, P.E.
                Caldwell Energy & Environmental, Inc.
                Louisville, KY

                Randall B. Cummings, P.E.
                F.J. Linkous, Jr., P.E.
                Lockwood Greene
                Atlanta, GA

                ABSTRACT

                Refrigerated inlet air cooling is one of the most effective ways to increase the capacity of combustion turbines (CTs) during high ambient temperatures, yet the application has not received wide acceptance for large industrial type turbines. There are more than one hundred installations in which inlet air chilling is successfully applied to aeroderivatives, but only a handful of instances for large industrial type combustion turbines. The benefits are equally applicable to these machines as they are to aeroderivatives. The capacity enhancement will be even more cost effective for the new generation of CTs which are fired to higher temperatures and use less air per kW produced. The objective of this paper is to discuss the effects of chilling the inlet air for a GE Frame 7EA CT. An inlet air cooling system was installed at the Cogen Technologies' Camden Cogen facility during the spring of 1997. The cooling system consists of the latest chiller technology using non-ozone-depleting refrigerant R134a. This paper will address how the turbine capacity could be cost effectively increased during the summer months when demand is usually the highest. Several issues including the feasibility study, system description and its performance at various temperature/humidity conditions will be discussed in this paper. Field data shall be used to illustrate the benefits of inlet air cooling for turbine capacity enhancement.

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                  Wet Compression Technology For Combustion Turbines Application On 7EA

                  by

                  Donald Shepherd
                  V.P. Mechanical/Electrical Engineering
                  Caldwell Energy Company Caldwell Energy Company
                  Louisville, KY

                  Wet Compression

                  • What is the goal of all Turbine Inlet Cooling Technologies?

                  • Increase output and Efficiency

                  • How do the technologies do this?

                  – Reduce the inlet temperature

                  – Increase the mass flow into the machine

                  – Decreases the compressor discharge temperature

                  Wet Compression Technology (WCT) Genesis

                  • Water Wash Systems

                  – Used for years to 'secretly' increase

                  Combustion Turbine Output

                  • Early 90's Realizations

                  • Several Patents Issued

                  – Others Pending

                  – Prudent to License Prudent to License

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                    First Application Of Power Augmentation With Inlet Cooling On Syngas Combustion Turbine

                    by

                    Donald W. Shepherd
                    Caldwell Energy Company
                    Louisville, Kentucky, USA

                    ABSTRACT

                    The output of combustion turbines operating on syngas is greatly reduced due to the lower heating value of the fuel. To recoup some of that lost power, inlet cooling with fog and patented wet compression has been applied to a General Electric combustion turbine in China. This is a first of its kind application and this paper will detail the specifics relative to the design and impact on the combustion turbine.

                    The combination of inlet cooling with fog and wet compression increases the capacity of a combustion turbine (CT) by injecting water droplets into the inlet to evaporative cool the air and purposefully injects additional fog into the compressor inlet (AKA – overspray, high fogging or super saturation) to further cool the inlet air and intercool the combustion turbine. The increase in capacity is threefold: denser inlet air, reduction in compressor work, and ability for additional firing in the combustor, in addition to the overall increase in mass flow through the turbine.

                    This paper focuses on the unique obstacles overcome in applying this technology to a syngas combustion turbine. It will detail the thermodynamic benefits of inlet cooling with fog and wet compression, the risks associated therewith, the steps that were taken to integrate and validate the system at a recent installation, and performance results of the system application on a GE combustion.

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